How do you escape slavery mentally even if you manage to physically? Do you ever? These are questions more relevant than ever in view of the events of recent weeks and the Black Lives Matter protests. Colson Whitehead in his book The Underground Railroad (Fleet,2017) touches on this, with a speech by Lander, one of his characters, prefiguring Martin Luther King by a century.
In the first half of the 18th century, ideas of freedom were ever present. But an idea of organized freedom for enslaved peoples was then in its infancy. The central characters in both books escape the plantations in the South where they are enslaved, by using a system called the underground railroad. But the conception of this system in the two books is different.
Avoiding the terminology ‘black’ and ‘white’, in Coates’ book The Water Dancer slaves are the Tasked and owners are the Quality.
“And what was this Underground? It was said among the Tasked that a secret society of colored men had built their own separate world deep in the Virginia swamps.”
Thanks to The New York Public Library for sharing their work on Unsplash.
To enslave another race is an act of pure violence so therefore it is impossible to separate cruelty from the slave narrative. Coates’ book is more soft focus – the bad stuff happens but tends to happen off screen. In Whitehead’s book it’s a bit more in your face. Coates book contains fantasy elements combined with its slavery narrative, and I wasn’t sure how well the two sat together.
At the commencement of The Water Dancer, the protagonist Hiram Walker is still a child, his mother is sold by her owner (also Hiram’s father) and the boy is left alone, then raised by a strange, solitary woman called Thena.
Hiram’s almost perfect recall ability indicates a mysterious power known as conduction which involves mysterious physical travel based on the power of memory. This power relies on deep memory – specifically memories related to Hiram’s mother.
Not everything needs to be realist. But it struck me as a little incongruous to involve what is effectively magic and fantasy within a narrative of lives when all too often such things were woefully lacking. This I found to be interesting – a dichotomy. Fiction is fiction, yes you can make the whole thing up. But against such an historical background what are the duties and responsibilities of the writer? It is an enquiry into the ultimate power of memory – perhaps. If we can come to terms with our memories, that is itself a form of freedom.
Whatever questions The Water Dancer asks, and however lyrical its prose or rounded its characterization, in terms of its plot structure I found it lacking. And because of this, I also found it difficult to believe in any real sense of risk to the protagonist, Hiram Walker.
The story is this. Hiram is noticed by his slave owning father for having a photographic memory, he is taken up to the big house Lockless, as a servant and educated by his father. Hiram is ‘tasked’ with looking out for his half brother Maynard – heir to the fading Lockless estate – a duty in which it could be said he signally fails when, Hiram driving on the return from a trip to town – the carriage plunges into the river Goose and Maynard drowns. Hiram survives.
If you were a slave and driving the horse and carriage and took the master’s son with you into the River Goose – even though it wasn’t your fault – there would be some sort of penalty to pay, surely? Yet Hiram seems to escape retribution. This was only one of the plot turns that I found less than credible.
Nevertheless enslaved even in relative comfort is still enslaved. Taking the decision to run, Hiram gets himself into all sorts of difficulties and adventures before eventually finding those involved in the underground, the work of resistance and the abolition movement called the underground, a series of sympathisers, abolitionists and safe houses.
In Colson Whitehead’s book The Underground Railroad, the protagonist Cora is a very different person to Hiram. Her mother has run off leaving her daughter behind aged 8. Unlike Hiram, Cora has no-one to take on the role of her absent mother and is left to fend for herself on the plantation – coping both with the overseers and masters as well as the behaviour of other slaves. She is old enough to carry the memory of her abandonment by her mother – whom she believes to have escaped to safety.
In this story the railroad is conceived as an actual railway, buried black and deep in the earth run by an eclectic and jolly mix of boy/men depositing frightened and starving runaways into abandoned mines, earthworks or ruined cottages. A brilliant idea. It is pure gothic. When Cora asks who built it, the reply comes the same people who build everything.
Because she has been abandoned by her mother she has difficulty relating to anyone at all, even her co-slaves. She is not going to be anyone’s pushover though. Even aged 8, Cora first shows her mettle when taking a hatchet to the property of another slave who has decided to build a kennel for his dog on her patch. The dog escapes. Just.
Cora comes from a long line of such hardship.
“Cora’s grandmother was sold a few times… passed between slavers for cowrie shells and glass beads. It was hard to say how much they paid for her in Ouidah as she was part of a bulk purchase …”
In both books, we see the impossibility of escape, how well the opposition is organized using informers of all creeds and colours – whereas any organization on the slave side is left to a courageous few prepared to risk everything.
Who do you trust? In both Virginia and Georgia as well as South Carolina and other places where these novels are set–– the slave system was buttressed not only by the masters and owners but by gangs of ruthless men who had nothing better to do than roam the land hunting down escaped slaves for the bounty money offered for their return. One such man is called Ridgeway – and he has a particular grudge against Cora. We feel his malign presence throughout her struggle.
Colson Whitehead interleaves some of his chapters with excerpts from real ads taken from a Californian archive for the return of escaped ‘property’ in case any reader is inclined to think, its just a novel.
If freedom is gained, then what? How are memories of persecution expunged? This is the part of the story as yet unwritten.
I enjoyed both these books. But for me Whitehead’s book has the edge in terms of delivering a believable narrative. I am delighted to discover both these authors and will be looking out for more of their work.